Research

ITO World created an interactive map showing ‘virtually every fatality that occurred on roads in the United States as a result of a collision involving a motor vehicle between between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2009.’  What’s great is that the map shows how each person was traveling. Based in the UK, ITO World, are transportation specialists who produce mapping and visualizations to help people understand and analyse complex transport data and what’s great is that the map is made available to all under the Creative Commons License.

Understanding and Measuring Bicycling Behavior: a Focus on Travel Time and Route Choice (web)

Using GPS, this paper looked at how the built environment influence bicycling behavior; and what routes did they take. Key finding: When the bicyclists were riding for utilitarian purposes, they rode mainly on facilities with bicycle infrastructure. For over half (52%) of the miles bicycled on bicycle-only utilitarian trips were made on facilities with bicycle infrastructure, including lanes, separate paths, or bicycle boulevards.

Economic Benefits of Bicycling Resources (pdf)

This list compiles all recent research on the topic, under the headings of Property Value + Business Impact, Jobs + Industry, Environment, Health, and Trails

Resident Perceptions of Bicycle Boulevards: A SE Salmon Street Case Study (web)

A survey of residents along SE Salmon Street (a Bicycle Boulevard in Portland, Oregon) was conducted. 48% of comments could be categorized as positive towards the Bicycle Boulevard and bicyclists in general, another 40% of the comments could be categorized as generally frustrated or openly hostile. Key recommendations to alleviate tensions between Bicycle Boulevard residents and cyclists include increasing traffic diversion measures, improving cyclist visibility at night, and providing clearer communication about Bicycle Boulevard purpose, traffic laws, and expected courteous behaviors in the communities they serve.

The Effectiveness of Safe Routes to School and Other Programs to Promote Active Transportation to School (pdf)

Programs to promote active transportation to school have been gaining popularity as a way to incorporate physical activity into children’s lives, reduce traffic congestion in school zones and improve air quality in communities by eliminating auto trips. This paper evaluated programs that increase active transportation to school and measures changes in attitudes and behavior about journey to school transportation.

Creating a Bicycle Culture (web)

For the last several years, sociologists at Lancaster University have been studying the factors that keep people off two wheels in Britain, where biking has been relatively slow to catch on compared to other European countries, despite large government investment. The 2010 interim report of the Understanding Walking and Cycling study noted that “Walking and cycling are often thought of as simple forms of travel which require little equipment or planning. In fact this is not the case.”

America’s Top Cities for Bike Commuting: Happier, Too (web)

The Atlantic did an interesting survey of the top bike commuting towns in the U.S. They are Eugene, Oregon (5.6 percent of people commute by bike), Fort Collins, Colorado (5.2 percent), Missoula, Montana (4.8 percent), Boulder, Colorado (4.77 percent), and Santa Barbara, California (3.74 percent).

Seattle Walk Score (map)

Walk Score visual displays walkability, public transit, and road connectivity data to researchers and planners for American cities.

The Greenroads Rating System

City of Minneapolis, 2010, in Flusche, D., 2011

From 2000 to 2009, bike crashes in Minneapolis, MN dropped 20%, while the number of city bicyclists increased 174% between 2003 and 2008.

Reynolds, C., et al., 2009

A review of 23 studies on bicycling injuries found that bike facilities (e.g. off-road paths, on-road marked bike lanes, and on-road bike routes) are where bicyclists are safest.

The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature, Environmental Health, 8:47

“Ridership up, crashes down: ‘Safety in Numbers’ in Minneapolis,” BikeLeague.org blog, 9 February 2011

American Community Survey, Share of Commuters Who Bike to Work

Greenroads is a sustainability rating system for roadway design and construction projects.

U.S. Department of Transportation Policy Statement on Bicycle and Pedestrian Accommodation: Regulations and Recommendations, Signed on March 11, 2010 and announced March 15, 201

Washington State Department of Transportation Walking in Washington and Bicycling in Washington

Active Transportation for America: A Case for Increased Federal Investment in Bicycling and Walking – Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, October 2008 – Report to Congress

Bicycling and Walking in the United States 2010, Benchmarking Report, Alliance for Bicycling and Walking.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety – Federal Highway Administration

Mean Streets 2004, The Surface Transportation Policy Project (STPP), 12-04 – Recommends specific actions that governments can take to increase pedestrian safety

Bikeability Checklist – Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center

Kids Walk to School Program – Centers for Disease Control

National Strategies for Advancing Child Pedestrian Safety – National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC)

Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety – Washington State Traffic Safety Commission

Walkable America Checklist: How Walkable Is Your Community? (pdf) – National Safety Council

Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities, A Recommended Practice – Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1998

Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Research – Federal Highway Administration

Pedestrian Safety Programs – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Traffic Safety Research – Center for Research and Safety Education (Canada private)

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)

Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE)

Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals(APBP)

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Bicycle and Pedestrian Program Office of Natural and Human Environment

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